Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a disease caused by defective carbohydrate metabolism and characterized by abnormally large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine. Diabetes mellitus is usually classified into two types. Type I or "insulin-dependent" diabetes mellitus (IDDM), formerly called juvenile-onset diabetes, which occurs in children and young adults has been implicated as one of the autoimmune diseases. Type II or "non-insulin-dependent" diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), formerly called adult-onset diabetes is found in persons over 40 years old and progresses slowly.
Diabetes Mellitus that is characterized by hyperglycemia or dangerously high blood sugar levels can be caused either by not enough secretion of insulin which is generally caused by defects in the pancreas or the development of insulin resistance by cells that lead to the lack of capacity to properly utilize insulin.
Nursing diagnosis is the individual response to actual and potential problems, which meant the actual problem is a problem that was found at the time of assessment, while a potential problem is likely to arise later.
Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus
Nursing Diagnosis that may appear on the client with Diabetes Mellitus by Carpenitto, Doengoes, Sorensen and Brunner and Suddart include:
1) Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements related to reduction of carbohydrate metabolism due to insulin deficiency, inadequate intake due to nausea and vomiting.
2) Fluid Volume Deficit related to osmotic diuresis from hyperglycemia, polyuria, decreased fluid intake.
3) Impaired Skin Integrity related to decreased sensory sensation, impaired circulation, decreased activity / mobilization, lack of knowledge of skin care.
4) Activity Intolerance related to weakness due to decreased energy production.
5) High risk of injury associated with decreased sensation sensory (visual), weakness, and hypoglycemia.
6) Anxiety related to a lack of knowledge (diabetes management), the ability to remember the less, diagnosis or treatment of a new way, cognitive limitations.
7) Risk for ineffective management of therapeutic rules at home due to a lack of knowledge about the condition of the therapeutic management, inadequate support systems.