Saturday, September 15, 2012

Six Factors that Affect Pain

Pain is a sensory and emotional experience that the unpleasant result of tissue damage, actual and potential. Similarly, understanding the pain of Brunner & Suddarth, 2002.

This pain can only be felt by a person without being perceived by others, and will include patterns of thought, activity someone directly, as well as changes in a person's life. Pain is an important signs and symptoms which may indicate the occurrence of a physiological disorder.

For a nurse or other health professionals should consider the factors that influence pain in the face of patients who experience pain. It is very important in the accurate assessment of pain and for nursing action.

Here are Six Factors that Affect Pain, including:

1. Age Factor. Age is an important variable that affects the pain, especially in children and adults. Developmental differences were found between the two age groups may affect how children and adults react to pain. Children difficulty to understand the pain and think that what nurses can cause pain. Children who do not have a lot of vocabulary, have difficulty verbally describing and expressing pain to parents or caregivers. Children can not express the pain, so the nurse should assess pain responses in children. In adults often report pain if it is pathological and malfunction.

2. Anxiety Factor. Although it is generally believed that the anxiety will increase the pain, may not be entirely true in all circumstances. Research does not show a consistent relationship between anxiety and pain also showed that preoperative stress reduction training at lower postoperative pain. However, the relevant anxiety, or dealing with the pain can increase the patient's perception of pain. In general, an effective way to relieve pain is to direct the treatment of pain rather than anxiety (Smeltzer & Bare, 2002).

3. Gender Factor. Gender factor this in conjunction with the factors that affect pain is that men and women did not have significant differences regarding their response to pain. It is doubtful that gender is an independent factor in the expression of pain. For example, boys must be brave and not cry in which a woman can cry at the same time.

4. Family and Social Support Factors. Other factors that also affect the response to pain is the presence of people nearby. People who are in a state of pain often rely on family for support, help or protect. The absence of family or close friends might make the pain increased. The presence of parents is particularly important for children in the face of pain (Potter & Perry, 1993).

5. Cultural Factors. Beliefs and cultural values ​​influence the way individuals cope with pain. Individuals learn what is expected and what is acceptable to their culture. This includes how to react to pain (Calvillo & Flaskerud, 1991). Recognizing the cultural values that have one and understand why these values ​​differ from the values ​​of other cultures helps to avoid evaluating a patient's behavior based on a person's expectations and cultural values. Nurses are aware of cultural differences will have a greater understanding of the patient's pain and be more accurate in assessing pain and behavioral responses to pain are also effective in relieving pain patients (Smeltzer & Bare, 2003).

6. Coping Pattern Factor. When a person is experiencing pain and undergoing treatment at the hospital is very unbearable. Continually client lost control and was not able to control the environment, including pain. Clients often find a way to overcome the effects of physical and psychological pain. It is important to understand the sources of individual coping during painful. Sources of coping is like communicating with family, exercise and singing can be used as a plan to support the client and the client reduce pain.

Thursday, September 6, 2012

Signs and Symptoms of Yaws

Clinical symptoms of yaws, consists of 3 Stadium, namely:

Stage I:

This stage is also known as infectious stage. The average incubation period of 3 weeks or in the range of 3-90 days. Initial form of papilloma lesions on port d 'entre shaped like strawberries, wet surfaces, damp, festering, recovered spontaneously without leaving a trace, sometimes accompanied by an increase in body temperature, headache, sore bones and joints later, papules spread which resolved after 1-3 months. Lesions intinial last a few weeks and a few months later recovered. These lesions are often found around the mouth, the anus and vagina, and similar kandilomatalata on syphilis. These symptoms were healed without leaving scars, although sometimes with pigmentation. In addition there is a kind of papilloma on palms or feet, and usually humid. Symptoms of the skin, can be macula, macula Papulosa, papules, micropapula, nodules, without showing damage to the structure of the epidermis and no exudation. The form of the primary lesion is an infectious form.

Stage II

Or a period of transition: at this stage, where the lesion was found Treponema pallidum pertenue. This positive Treponema be several weeks to several months after stage I. At this stage, no infectious yaws with various clinical forms, such as hyperkeratosis. Abnormalities in the bones and joints, often the fingers and limb bones, which can lead to atrophy occurs nails, and gangosa deformation, which is a form of necrotizing disorder and can cause damage to the nasal bone and septum nasi with images of loss of nose shape, gondou (a form of hypertrophic osteitis), although rarely encountered. Joint disorders, hydrarthrosis and juxta articular nodules (subcutaneous nodules, easy to move, chewy, multiple), usually found in the ankle, near the caput fibulae, Acral areas or plantar and palmar.

Stage III:

At this stage, there Guma or indolent ulcer with steep edges or resonate, when cured, these lesions leave scars, keloids and contractures can form. If there is infection in the bone can lead to defects and damage to the bone. Damage often occurs on the palate, nasal bone, the tibia.