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Thursday, May 5, 2011

Nursing Interventions for Imbalanced Nutrition Less than Body Requirements

Imbalanced Nutrition Less than Body Requirements

NANDA Definition: Intake of nutrients insufficient to meet metabolic needs

Adequate nutrition is necessary to meet the body’s demands. Nutritional status can be affected by disease or injury states (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI] malabsorption, cancer, burns); physical factors (e.g., muscle weakness, poor dentition, activity intolerance, pain, substance abuse); social factors (e.g., lack of financial resources to obtain nutritious foods); or psychological factors (e.g., depression, boredom). During times of illness (e.g., trauma, surgery, sepsis, burns), adequate nutrition plays an important role in healing and recovery. Cultural and religious factors strongly affect the food habits of patients. Women exhibit a higher incidence of voluntary restriction of food intake secondary to anorexia, bulimia, and self-constructed fad dieting. Patients who are elderly likewise experience problems in nutrition related to lack of financial resources, cognitive impairments causing them to forget to eat, physical limitations that interfere with preparing food, deterioration of their sense of taste and smell, reduction of gastric secretion that accompanies aging and interferes with digestion, and social isolation and boredom that cause a lack of interest in eating. This care plan addresses general concerns related to nutritional deficits for the hospital or home setting.

Nursing Intervention for Imbalanced Nutrition Less than Body Requirements
  1. Determine daily calorie needs are realistic and adequate. Consultation on nutrition expert.
  2. Weigh the body weight every day, monitor the results of laboratory examination.
  3. Explain the importance of adequate nutrition.
  4. Teach individuals to use flavorings to help improve the taste and smell of food (lemon, mint, clove, cinnamon, rosemary)
  5. Give encouragement of individuals to eat with others (food served in the family room or group)
  6. Plan maintenance procedures have an unpleasant or painful not done before eating.
  7. Give a fun, relaxed atmosphere (not visible potty, do not busy)
  8. Adjust the treatment plan to reduce or eliminate odors that cause wanted to vomit or procedure performed near the time of eating.
  9. Teach or assist individuals to rest before eating.
  10. Teach individuals to avoid the smell of fried food-eating, coffee-cooked if possible.
  11. Maintain oral hygiene before and after chewing.
  12. Offer to eat small portions but frequently to reduce feelings of tension in the stomach (six times per day with little food)
  13. Set to get the nutrients protein / high calorie, which is presented to individuals when they want to eat. (Eg, if the chemotherapy is done early morning and serve meals in the evening before eating).
  14. Instruct individuals who experience decreased appetite for:
    • Eating dry foods waking.
    • Eating salty foods if there are no restrictions.
    • Avoid foods that are too sweet, fattening, greasy.
    • Try to drink clear, warm.
    • Sip through a straw.
    • Eat whenever tolerated.
    • Eat small meals low in fat and eat more often.
  15. Try commercial supplements are available in many forms (powder, pudding, liquid)
  16. If individuals experiencing eating disorders (Townsend, 1994)
    • Set goals with the client's input, doctors and nutritionists.
    • Talk about the benefits of compliance and the consequences of disobedience.
    • If the input of food that must be rejected, remind the doctor.
    • Sitting accompany individuals during the meal, limit the time to eat up to 30 minutes.
    • Observe at least 1 hour before. Accompany client when to the bathroom.
    • Weigh the client body when he woke up and after the first micturition.
    • Give encouragement to repair, but do not focus the conversation on food or way of eating.
    • Along the improvement of individual, explore issues of self-image, weigh again, and watched over.
  17. For individuals who are hyperactive
    • Provide food and beverages that are high in protein, high calorie.
    • Offer more frequent smaller meals. Avoid foods that contain no calories (eg, soda)
    • Take a stroll along individual when given little food.

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