Suicide is any activity which, if not prevented can lead to death (Gail w. Stuart, Mental Nursing, 2007).
Suicide is the idea, signaling and suicide attempts, which often accompany depressive disorders and often occurs in adolescents (Harold Kaplan, Synopsis of Psychiatry, 1997).
Is universal: due to the inability of individuals to solve problems
1. Genetic factors (based on research):
- 1.5 to 3 times more suicidal behavior occurs in individuals who are first-degree relatives of people with mood disorders / depression / who had made a suicide attempt.
- More common in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins.
Usually due to chronic diseases / medical conditions, for example:
- Disorders / cognitive impairment (dementia)
- Coronary artery disease
- HIV / AIDS
- Theories Psychoanalytic / psychodynamic: Theory Freud, namely that the lost object associated with aggression and anger, negative feelings about themselves, and the last depression.
- Cognitive Behavioral Theory: Theory Beck, the growing negative cognitive patterns, low self-regard
- Environmental stressors: loss of family, deception, lack of social support systems.
Suicidal behavior is divided into 3 categories:
1. Suicide threats: there are verbal and non-verbal warnings, threats showed ambivalence someone to death, if not get a response it will be interpreted as support for the suicide.
2. Suicide attempts: all actions by individuals against self can lead to death if not prevented.
3. Suicide: going after missed or ignored warning signs, people who commit suicide do not even really want to die may be dead.
- Feelings of failure and worthlessness
- Insomnia is settled
- Weight loss
- Speaking of slow, fatigue
- Pulling away from the social environment
- Suicidal thoughts and plans
Assessment of risk factors for suicidal behavior
- Gender: increased risk in men
- Age: older, more problems
- Relationship Status: married to lower the risk, life itself is a problem.
- Family history: increased if there is a family with attempted suicide / substance abuse.
- Originator (life events that just happened): Loss of a loved one, unemployment, gets embarrassed in the social environment, etc..
- Personality factors: more often the introverted personality / shut down.
- Other: Studies show that the white race more at risk of suicidal behavior.
Nursing Diagnosis for Suicide
- Adjustment disorder
- Low Self-Esteem
- Ineffective individual coping
- Ineffective family coping
- Disturbed Sleep Pattern
- Social isolation
- Disturbed Thought Processes
- Risk for Violence: Self-Directed