Sunday, August 26, 2012

Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease

Nursing Care Plan for Diverticular DiseaseDefinition of Diverticular Disease

Diverticular disease is a common condition that affects the digestive system. It occurs when a small bulge or pouch (usually called diverticula) form in the colon wall. Diverticular disease is a common disease suffered, but most people do not experience any symptoms. The disease is becoming increasingly common in the current one is getting old. Diverticular disease occurs when a small area of the intestinal lining to weaken and bulge or pouch formed over the years. This is known as diverticular. Diverticular mostly found at the bottom of the large intestine in some people even found at the bottom of the bowels.

Causes of Diverticular Disease

Low-fiber diet, particularly the lack of fruits and vegetables, and red meat and high fat is the main cause of diverticular disease. This is rare in vegetarians and in some parts of the world where high fiber intake. Field commonly affected bowel diverticular disease.

Symptoms of Diverticular Disease

The symptoms of diverticular disease are usually felt in the lower left abdomen. The pain can occur after eating. It may disappear after flatulence or bowel movements. Other symptoms include:
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Persistent abdominal pain and getting worse, starting from below the navel and then moves to the left side down (though it can appear on the right for Asians due to genetic differences)
  • Fever (high temperature)
  • Frequent urination and sometimes painful
  • Change in bowel habits
  • Nausea and vomiting
The pain and disturbed bowel function is lost and back again from time to time and found blood in the stool. This is due to the weakening of blood vessels in the diverticular. If the blood comes from the gut most often seen as blood in the stool. The blood that comes from a higher place in the digestive system, such as the abdomen, dirt tends to be black and live. Sometimes scar tissue forms around an inflamed diverticula, and this can lead to a narrowing or blockage of the intestine. If the diverticula widespread, they can cause the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) becomes inflamed and swollen. This is called peritonitis.

Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease

Diverticular disease is a term used to describe diverticulitis and diverticulosis. Diverticulosis refers to the yolk outside the intestinal mucosa of non-inflammatory. Divertikulisis is beyond yolk stuck or herniation of the intestinal mucosa muscle wrapping around the colon, usually the sigmoid colon. Diverticular disease is common in men and women and at the age of 45 years, and obese people. This case occurs in approximately one third of the population over 60 years old. Low-fiber diet linked to the occurrence of diverticular, because this diet lowers bulk in the stool and predispose to constipation. In the presence of muscle weakness in the colon, can improve intramular pressures that can cause diverticular formation. The cause of diverticulosis include intestinal atrophy or muscle weakness, increased intramural pressure, obesity, and chronic constipation. Diverticulosis occurs when food is not digested clog diverticulum, causing decreased blood supply to the area and trigger intestinal bacterial invasion into the diverticulum. Diverticula have a narrow intestinal lumen as a bottle neck. The weak point in the intestinal muscles there in the branches of blood vessels that penetrate the colonic wall. The weak point is creating intestinal protrusion area when there is an increase in intraluminal pressure. Diverticula often occur in the sigmoid colon due to high pressure in this area is needed to remove feces into the rectum. Diverticulitis may be acute or chronic. If not infected diverticula (diverticulosis), these lesions cause little problem. However, if the fecalith not watered and flowing of the diverticulum, fecalith can become trapped and cause irritation and inflammation (diverticulitis). Area inflamed clogged blood and can bleed. Diverticulitis can lead to perforation if the masses are trapped in the diverticulum erode the intestinal wall. Chronic Diverticulitis can lead to increased scarring and narrowing of the lumen of the intestine ultimately, potentially causing obstruction. Meckel's diverticulum is intestinal yolk formation, investigation of embryonic development found in the ilium of 10 cm from the cecum. Yolk is lined by gastric mucosa or pancreatic tissue may contain. Mucosal lining of the stomach sometimes cause ulceration and bleeding or perforation. In addition, the inflamed diverticula can and attached to the umbilicus by fibrous bands and became the focus of the selection of the intestine that causes obstruction. Action against the state include the diverticulum surgery.

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