Saturday, June 30, 2012

Definition, Causes, Classification and Pathophysiology for Epilepsy

Definition, Causes, Classification and Pathophysiology for EpilepsyDefinition, Causes, Classification and Pathophysiology for Epilepsy

Epilepsy or epilepsy known as the "world's oldest diseases" (2000 years BC). The disease is fairly common and is chronic. Patients will suffer for years. About 0.5 - 1% of the population are people with epilepsy.

Definition of Epilepsy

Rise of epilepsy, are manifestations of brain disorders with different clinical symptoms, caused by loss of electrical charge from brain neurons to excess and periodic but reversible with various etiologies (Tjahjadi, et al, 1996).

Epilepsy is a complex symptom of several disorders of brain function characterized by the occurrence of repeated seizures. Can be associated with loss of consciousness, excessive movement, or loss of muscle tone or movement, mood and behavior disorders, sensation and perception (Brunner and Suddarth, 2000).

Seizures are the release of a group of neurons suddenly resulting in the destruction of consciousness, movement, sensation or temporary memory. The term epilepsy is usually a chronic disorder that is incurred as a form of repetitive strain (Hudak and Gallo, 1996).

Pathophysiology for Seizure EpilepsyCauses of Epilepsy

The most significant cause for epilepsy and seizures is considered as head trauma. Even though it has been widely accepted that when a remote injury which has occurred in previously could cause epilepsy, well there's no confirmation given as to how long or what kind of this injury should be. However, it is commonly known that epilepsy risk can boost up substantially when there're penetrating or say, open wound.

Tonic clonic seizures - This considered to be extremely intense among every kind of seizures, they could be characterized through lack of consciousness, body shivering and stiffening and have no control on bladder or at times tongue biting.

If every brain's area is disturbed by non-standard electrical activity, then it might result in generalized seizure. It means that their lack of consciousness or may be consciousness is impaired. Frequently every individual's legs and arms stiffen and later jerk rhythmically.

Pathophysiology of Epilepsy

The exact mechanism of seizure activity in the brain are not everything can be understood. Some triggers cause a sudden burst of abnormal electrical stimulation, the brain disrupt normal nerve conduction. In the brain that are not susceptible to seizures, there is a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic neurons that affect postsinaptik. In the brain that are susceptible to seizures, the balance is disrupted, causing an imbalance of electrical conduction pattern of the so-called paroxysmal depolarization shift. This shift can be seen best when there is excessive excitatory effect or inhibitory effect is not sufficient.

Classification of Epilepsy
  1. Partial seizures
    • Simple partial (consciousness of good clients)
      • motor
      • sensory
      • autonomy
      • physical
    • Complex partial (impaired consciousness)
      • Simple partial followed by a decrease in consciousness
      • Awareness at the onset of damage
    • Secondary generalization of partial seizures
  2. General seizures
    • Non seizures
    • General tonic-clonic
    • Tonic
    • Clonic
    • Myoclonic
    • Atonik
  3. Seizures Not classified

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