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Friday, March 23, 2012

Torch Infections In Pregnancy : Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex

Torch Infections In Pregnancy : Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplexTORCH is a term used to describe the combination of four types of infectious diseases is Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes. The fourth type of defect of this infection, is equally harmful to the fetus if the infection suffered by pregnant women.

Now, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases has grown among other toward the immunological examination.

The principle of this examination is the detection of specific antibodies against germs that cause infections such as the body's response to foreign bodies (germs). Antibodies are the worst may be immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG).


Toxoplasma infection is caused by a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii.
In general, Toxoplasma infections occur without specific symptoms. Only approximately 10-20% of cases of infection.

Toxoplasma is accompanied by mild symptoms, such as influenza symptoms, can result in fatigue, malaise, fever, and generally do not cause problems.

Toxoplasma infection occurs when harmful when pregnant women or in people with compromised immune systems (eg people with AIDS, organ transplantation patients who received the drug suppressing the immune response).

If a pregnant woman infected with Toxoplasma is a result that can happen is a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage (4%), birth and death (3%) or infants suffering from congenital toxoplasmosis. On congenital toxoplasmosis, symptoms can appear as an adult, such as eye and ear disorders, mental retardation, seizures and encephalitis.

Toxoplasmosis diagnosis is clinically difficult to determine because the symptoms are not specific or even no symptoms (sub clinical). Therefore, laboratory tests are absolutely necessary to get a proper diagnosis. Examinations are commonly performed anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA, and IgG avidity anti-Toxoplasma.

Examination needs to be done on people suspected of being infected with Toxoplasma, the mothers before or during pregnancy (when a negative result should be repeated once a month, especially in the first trimester, then each trimester), and newborns of mothers infected with Toxoplasma.


Rubella infection characterized by acute fever, rash and enlarged lymph nodes. The infection is caused by Rubella virus, can attack children and young adults.

Rubella infection, harmful if happens to young pregnant women, because it may cause abnormalities in babies. If infection occurs in the first month of pregnancy, the risk of abnormalities was 50%, whereas if infection occurs first trimester the risk is 25% (according to the American College of Obstatrician and Gynecologists, 1981).

Signs and symptoms of rubella infection varies for each individual, even in some patients go unrecognized, especially if the rash does not appear red. Hence, proper diagnosis of rubella infection need to be enforced with the help of laboratory tests.

Laboratory examinations performed included examination of Anti-Rubella IgG and IgM.

Examination of Anti-rubella IgG can be used to detect the presence of immunity during pregnancy. If they are not immune, it is recommended to be vaccinated.

Examination of Anti-rubella IgG and IgM is particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute infection in pregnancy <18 weeks and the risk of congenital rubella infection.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

CMV infection is caused by a virus Cytomegalo, and these virus groups including the Herpes virus family. As with other herpes family, CMV virus can stay latent in the body and CMV infection is one cause that is harmful to the fetus if the infection is harmful to the fetus if infection occurs when the mother was pregnant.

If pregnant women are infected. the fetus at risk of contracting the disorder such that an enlarged liver, jaundice, brain calcifications, deafness, mental retardation, and others.

Laboratory tests are very useful to know the acute infection or recurrent infections, in which acute infection have a higher risk. Laboratory tests performed included anti-CMV IgG and IgM, and IgG avidity anti-CMV.


Herpes infection of the genitals (sex) is caused by herpes simplex virus type II (HSV II). The virus can be in the form of latent, creeping through the sensory nerve fibers and ganglion settles in the autonomic nervous system.

Babies born to mothers infected with HSV II usually showed blisters on the porters, but this does not always appear so it may not be known. HSV II infection in newborns can be fatal (In more than 50 cases)

Laboratory tests, the Anti-HSV II IgG and IgM is essential for early detection of the possibility of infection by HSV II and mencaegah further danger to the infant when infection occurs during pregnancy.

TORCH infections that occur in pregnant women DAPT harm the fetus. TORCH infection, clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Searing other diseases because the symptoms are not specific. Although there are giving these symptoms do not appear so difficult for doctors to perform diagnosis. Therefore, the laboratory is needed to help find out TORCH infection so the doctor can provide appropriate treatment or therapy.

TORCH panel
● Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM
● Anti-Rubella IgG and IgM
● Anti-CMV IgG and IgM
● Anti-HSV II IgG and IgM

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