Family nursing process there are several steps that are systematically arranged to illustrate the progression from stage to stage. According to Friedman (1998: 55) divided into five stages of the nursing process which consists of an assessment of the family, the identification of an individual or family problems and nursing diagnoses, treatment plans, deployment plans implemntasi sources and evaluation of care.
Family Nursing Process In Hypertension Patients
Nursing assessment is the stage when a nurse is continuously collecting information about the family cultivated. Nursing assessment is the first step in the implementation of family nursing care. In order to obtain an accurate assessment data and in accordance with family circumstances, nurses are expected to use their mother tongue (the language used in everyday life), straightforward and simple.
Activities undertaken in the assessment includes the collection of information in a systematic way by using a family assessment tool, classified and analyzed.
Data Collection On Patients Hypertension
1) Assessment of family identity are: age, occupation, residence, and family type.
In general, patients with hypertension is a disease that is influenced by lifestyle, especially the wrong lifestyle, lifestyle-related negative emotions, such emotions are uncontrollable or temperamental, ambitious, hard worker who is not calm, excessive fear and anxiety.
2) Cultural background / family practice
a. Eating habits
Eating habits include the type of food consumed by the family. In families with hypertension often found improper diet such as eating foods that contain lots of preservatives, the food is salty and negative emotions.
b. Utilization of health facilities
Family behavior in the use of health facilities is an important factor in the management of hypertension. The existence of health care resources are used for prevention and early treatment as it can prevent the onset of complications. (Rokhaeni, 2001:115).
c. Traditional medicine
Families can treat hypertension with traditional medicine, namely drinking juice garlic finely ground and given to drink enough water in the morning and afternoon (Hariadi, 2001:26). Hypertension will become worse and cause complications if the patient does not choose the traditional treatment of hypertension is right and proper it will aggravate and even cause problems in other organs such as liver, kidney and stomach.
3) Socioeconomic Status
Family education level affects the family in identifying hypertension and its management. also affect the pattern of thought and the ability to take decisions to tackle the problem properly and correctly.
b. Employment and Income
Unequal income also affects the family in treatment and care to sick family members one of which is caused due to hypertension.
4) The development and family history
Family history from birth to the present. Includes history and development of events and experiences unique health or health-related that occurred in family life unmet psychological effect on a person that can lead to anxiety stress.
Hard physical activity can add to the increase in blood pressure. Hypertension may occur after an attack or when doing physical activities, like sports.
6) Environmental Data
a. characteristics of home
Way modify the physical environment such as the floor of the house is good, good lighting and ventilation factors can lessen the causes of hypertension as well as peace in the household can reduce hypertension attack.
b. Environmental characteristics
According to (friedman, 1998: 22) is influenced by the degree of environmental health. Peace of the environment strongly influences the degree of health is no exception in hypertension
c. Family gatherings and interaction with the community
Problems in the family may be one factor which triggers the occurrence of hypertension will lead to anxiety is a risk factor for hypertension.
7) Family Structure
a. communication patterns
According to (Nursalam, 2001:26) All nurse interaction with patients is based on communication. The term communication is a technique in which teurapetik effort to invite patients and families to exchange ideas and feelings. Engineering skills include verbal and non verbal, empathy and a sense of high concern.
b. The power structure
Power within the family affect the health conditions, authoritarian rule can lead to psychological stress affect the hypertension.
c. The structure of the role
When family members received and made consistent with the role, then this will make the family members are satisfied or not there is conflict in the role, and vice versa when a role is unacceptable and incompatible with the hope it could lead to tensions within the family (Friedman, 1998).
9) The pattern of rest-sleep
Restful sleep will be disturbed when someone is experiencing unresolved problems. In patients with hypertension, sleep disorders are often caused by a break shortness of breath and coughing. Unmet need for bed rest are at risk of worsening the state of hypertension.
10) The physical examination of family members
As a comprehensive assessment procedure, also performed a thorough physical examination from head to nail. Once found health problems, physical examination focused more on examining the respiratory system, especially in patients with hypertension due to the presence of hypertension may increase intra-cranial pressure which can cause abnormalities in the respiratory nerves.
11) Family Coping
If there are stressors in the family, whereas family coping is ineffective, then this will be a family member to prolonged stress. One of the prevention of hypertension attacks are not often appear to prevent the onset of stress (Cape, 2003).