There are certain conditions that arise during the pregnancy that can lead to a high incidence of birth injuries. One of those conditions is preeclampsia. It is important that the mum is given the right treatment before the birth so that the risk of injury is minimized in the majority of cases. It is said that about seven out of one thousand babies suffer birth injuries.
Preeclampsia signs can persist for as long as 3 months after birth but usually disappear entirely in most women.
If preeclampsia is left untreated the blood pressure can become so high that the woman is at increased risk of seizures. Symptoms of preeclampsia are right upper abdominal pain, headache, disturbance in vision and alteration in mental state. Permanent injury to the brain, liver and kidneys have been reported in uncontrolled preeclampsia. Reduced placental blood flow leads to less oxygen and nutrient supply to the baby. Fetal growth slows and a preterm delivery is associated with breathing difficulties for the baby when it is born.
Risk Factors For Preeclampsia
- Previous kidney disease.
- Teenage mothers and women over 35 year of age.
- Twins or more.
- History of Lupus.
- Assisted reproduction.
- Barrier methods of contraception.
- First pregnancy or first pregnancy with a new partner.
- History of diabetes.
- Presence of essential hypertension (high blood pressure).
Nursing Diagnosis for Preeclampsia : Risk for Injury: the fetus is related to an inadequate blood perfusion to the plasma
Goal: Injury did not occur in the fetus
Nursing Interventions for Preeclampsia:
1. Instruct the patient to Rest
Rational: By resting the client, is expected to decrease the body's metabolism and blood circulation to the placenta to be more adequate to the need of oxygen to the fetus can be met.
2. Encourage clients to sleep on their left
Rationale: With the left side sleeping is expected vena cava on the right is not depressed by the enlarged uterus so that the flow palasenta darh to be smooth.
3. Monitor blood pressure
Rationale: The client can monitor blood pressure condition known as placental blood flow to high blood pressure, blood flow to the placenta is reduced so that the supply of oxygen to the fetus is reduced.
4. Monitor the client's heart sounds
Rational: By monitoring the fetal heart sounds can be known to the state of the fetal heart is weak or declining indicating reduced supply of oxygen to the placenta so that action can be planned in advance.
5. Give anti-hypertensive drugs will lower the tone of the arteries and cause a decrease in cardiac afterload by vasodilatation of blood vessels so that blood pressure down.
Rationale: By decreasing blood pressure so that blood flow to the placenta becomes more adequate.